Kalinovski

 

The history of magnate family Kalinovski was directly connected with Podillia and Bratslavshchina for about 200 years. Owning many territories, the Kalinovskis represented the active conductors of the Polish expansion Coat of arms "Kalinova"on the Ukrainian land.

The representatives of this family took active participation on the side of a Crown in military campaigns of the Liberation War in 1648-1654 . At the same time the Kalinovskis have applied huge efforts for the strengthening of southern borders of Bratslav province at the beginning of XVII century, for constructions of new cities and castles, building of monasteries and many other. The Kalinovskis is the ancient Polish family of the arms Kalinova, which represents a silver arrow in a red field directed by the point upwards. The empennage of the arrow is divide in two, on both its sides there are gold six-coal stars.


On Podillia the Kalinovskis have declared about themselves in the middle of XVI century, when the brothers Krishtof, Jan and Martin got manors near Kamianets. Martin, the youngest of them, "Didich of Nefedovtsi and Gumintsi", became the founder of the hetman line of Kalinovski. Soon the Kalinovski appear on Bratslavshchina.
In 1590-1596 Martin Kalinovskiy became the owner of significant territories on the left bank of the Dniester, and turned to be the largest land owner of the East Podillia.
His son Valentiy-Olexander in 1604 got the position of the head of Vinnitsa and Bratslav and stand there for more than nine years, being very active.
First Valentiy- Olexander Kalinovski took away all rights on urban    - ""   (1610 .) grounds from the lower middle class of Vinnitsa, by transforming the grounds into the heads property.

After a fire in the Vinnitsa castle Kalinovski built a new castle and a palace on an island Kempa on his own money. Under the evidence of the contemporaries, the palace amazed by the splendor and riches and was the real decoration of the city.

In 1611 Kalinovski invited the fathers-Jesuit from the Kamianets collegian to Vinnitsa. They rather effectively built their monastery and began their missionary activity (in other words, their struggle against Orthodoxy). In 1609, according to the decisions of Sejm Kalinovski has got a huge deserted territory in the east Bratslav province - "desert Uman". Valentiy Kalinovskiy took participation in many battles with horde, and received for his bravery a title "of the general of Podillia land ".

In 1620 in the battle with Turkish army at Cecora Valentiy-Olexander Kalinovski and his son Voytsekh were killed. Other sons Adam, Ezi and Martin have divided patrimonial grounds among them. Adam got Nestervar (Tulchin), Adamgorod (Trostianets) and Krasnopillia (Kirnasivka); Ezi became the owner of Nemyriv and Mogilyov; Martin received the family castle in Gusiatin. Adam Kalinovski was the Head of Vinnitsa during 16 years. Unlike his father he patronaged the order of Dominicans, and invested much money in building of the Dominican monastery.

Especially appreciable figure in political life of Bratslavshchina of the middle of XVII century was Martin Kalinovski. His service career was fast-moving even for that time. At the beginning of the 20s he became the Head of Lityn and Bratslav, in 1626 - the Kamianets "podkomoriy", and in 1635 - the governor of Chernigov. In 1646 Martin Kalinovski was nominated a crown hetman, and in two years, before the Liberation War, he accepted the Bratslav province. During 20 years Kalinovskiy took part in ten battles, was at war with the Swedes, Tatars, in 1633 he was wounded near Smolensk. Right at the beginning of the revolt under the leadership of Bogdan Khmelnitskiy, in May, 1648, the forces of Kalinovskiy were completely defeated by the     . (    )Ukrainian Cossack army near Korsun. Kalinovskiy got to the tatar captivity. When he returned from Crimea, in winter of 1651 he carried out a large scale aggression to Bratslavshchina. During the raid the Polish army attacked and occupied Murafa, Stina, Jampil, Shargorod. In those days in Krasne the Cossack colonel Danilo Nechay was killed. Forces of Martin Kalinovskiy were stopped near Vinnitsa by other legendary colonel - Ivan Bogun.

The last in his life military action was carried out by Martin Kalinovskiy on lands of Bratslacshchina. In May, 1652 near the mountain of Batyg nearby Ladyzin his army was surrounded and was destroyed by the incorporated army of Cossacks and Tatars. Martin Kalinovski and his son Samuil were killed. Batozska battle is one of the most famous pages in the history of the Liberation War. Sometimes historians, describing the events of the middle of XVII century, are inclined to underestimate the forces of the side which counteracted insurgent Cossacks. We had certain stereotypes that crown army was guided by dulls. Actually Cossacks commanders were resisted by the warriors-professionals of one of the best European armies of that time.
That fact only adds glory to Bogdan Khmelnitskiy and his army. The family of Kalinowski still had influence in Podillia and Bratslavshchina for some time, however soon the riches of Kalinovski got to other hands (mainly - to Pototski). It marked the loss of former power and political authority of the Kalinovskis.

 

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